Prior to the 1950s failing kidney function was a guarantee of death. Healthy kidneys remove waste and excess water from the blood, but if the kidneys fail dialysis is needed to remove the excess waste. Patients could not undergo dialysis treatment indefinitely due to the glass shunts that were used in the treatment. The shunts caused damage to veins and arteries to such a degree that long term dialysis was impossible. Dialysis at that time was used only to stabilize a patient. If the kidneys did not begin to function properly the patient would eventually die of kidney failure.
A medical breakthrough
In 1960, Dr. Belding H. Scribner and his team at the University of Washington modified glass dialysis shunts by making them from Teflon.
The teflon Scribner Shunt worked by keeping the circulatory access open after dialysis treatment. Whenever necessary, the kidney dialysis machine could be attached to the tube without damaging the veins or arteries.
Award winning discovery
First dialysis center
With the creation of the Scribner Shunt, ongoing diaysis treatment became a reality and patients with chronic kidney disease could live with the disease. The world's first outpatient dialysis treatment center, the Seattle Artificial Kidney Center, was established in January 1962, later renamed the Northwest Kidney Center.
In her book, Shana Alexander chronicles the Life or Death Committee charged with deciding which patients would receive sparsely available, life saving dialysis treatment.
The 1965 NBC short documentary Who Shall Live? describes the rationing of dialysis treatment before it became widely available.
Narrated by Edwin Newman.
Continuing innovations in nephrology
Our work continues today with translational and basic research, clinical trials, improvements in technology and the desire to improve the lives of our patients. We are working on a Wearable Artificial Kidney to make dialysis portable, Kidney on a chip for safe drug testing, and many exciting discoveries to help patients with kidney disease.