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Diabetes and Hypertension: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association

Ian H. de Boer, Sripal Bangalore, Athanase Benetos, Andrew M. Davis, Erin D. Michos, Paul Muntner, Peter Rossing, Sophia Zoungas and George Bakris

Corresponding author: George Bakris


Hypertension is common among patients with diabetes, with the prevalence depending on type and duration of diabetes, age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, history of glycemic control, and the presence of kidney disease, among other factors. Furthermore, hypertension is a strong risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), heart failure, and microvascular complications. ASCVD—defined as acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction (MI), angina, coronary or other arterial revascularization, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral arterial disease presumed to be of atherosclerotic origin—is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for individuals with diabetes and is the largest contributor to the direct and indirect costs of diabetes.

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