Our faculty research broadens the knowledge of kidney disease.

Graft immaturity and safety concerns in transplanted human kidney organoids

Sun Ah Nam, Eunjeong Seo, Jin Won Kim, Hyung Wook Kim, Hong Lim Kim, Kyuryung Kim, Tae-Min Kim, Ji Hyeon Ju, Ivan G. Gomez, Kohei Uchimura, Benjamin D. Humphreys, Chul Woo Yang, Jae Yeon Lee, Jin Kim, Dong Woo Cho, Benjamin S. Freedman, Yong Kyun Kim

For chronic kidney disease, regeneration of lost nephrons with human kidney organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is proposed to be an attractive potential therapeutic option. It remains unclear, however, whether organoids transplanted into kidneys in vivo would be safe or functional. Here, we purified kidney organoids and transplanted them beneath the kidney capsules of immunodeficient mice to test their safety and maturity. Kidney organoid grafts survived for months after transplantation and became vascularized from host mouse endothelial cells.

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Does race/ethnicity matter? Findings from the MESA cohort

El Khoudary SR, Samargandy S, Zeb I, Foster T, de Boer IH, Li D, Budoff MJ

Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is associated with higher nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk in studies of mainly white participants. Significant racial/ethnic differences exist in serum 25(OH)D and NAFLD prevalence questioning extending this association to other racial/ethnic groups. We tested whether the association between serum 25(OH)D and NAFLD vary by race/ethnicity.

Impact of race on the association of mineral metabolism with heart failure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Michael Shlipak, Mark Sarnak, Ronit Katz, Carmen Peralta, Bessie Young, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Moyses Szklo, Joachim H Ix, Bruce M Psaty, Ian H de Boer, Bryan Kestenbaum, Nisha Bansal

Alterations in mineral metabolism, such as high phosphorus, high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and high fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) have been identified as potential risk factors for heart failure (HF). Important differences in the prevalence of mineral metabolism abnormalities and in the risk of HF have been reported across race/ethnic groups. In this study, we evaluated whether the associations of mineral metabolism markers with HF differed by race/ethnicity.

Race and Mortality in CKD and Dialysis: Findings From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

Ku E, Yang W, McCulloch CE, Feldman HI, Go AS, Lash J, Bansal N, He J, Horwitz E, Ricardo AC, Shafi T, Sondheimer J, Townsend RR, Waikar SS, Hsu CY; CRIC Study Investigators

Few studies have investigated racial disparities in survival among dialysis patients in a manner that considers risk factors and mortality during the phase of kidney disease before maintenance dialysis. Our objective was to explore racial variations in survival among dialysis patients and relate them to racial differences in comorbid conditions and rates of death in the setting of kidney disease not yet requiring dialysis therapy.

Effect of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Kidney Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Ian H. de Boer, Leila R. Zelnick, John Ruzinski, Georgina Friedenberg, Julie Duszlak, Vadim Y. Bubes, Andrew N. Hoofnagle, Ravi Thadhani, Robert J. Glynn, Julie E. Buring, Howard D. Sesso, JoAnn E. Manson

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes that can lead to end-stage kidney disease and is associated with high cardiovascular risk. Few treatments are available to prevent CKD in type 2 diabetes. The objective is to test whether supplementation with vitamin D3 or omega-3 fatty acids prevents development or progression of CKD in type 2 diabetes.

Differential Expression of Parietal Epithelial Cell and Podocyte Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Diabetic Nephropathy

Gek Cher Chan, Diana G. Eng, Jeffrey H. Miner, Charles E. Alpers, Kelly L Hudkins, Anthony Chang, Jeffrey W. Pippin, Stuart J Shankland

This study aimed to define individual ECM protein isoform expression by PECs in both experimental and human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and diabetic nephropathy (DN), and to determine if changes were CD44-dependent.

CD9 Is a Novel Target in Glomerular Diseases Typified by Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation

Smeets, B., Miesen, L., Shankland, S.J.

During the past decades, the pathogenic role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) has become evident. The development of the extracapillary lesions in FSGS and crescentic GN is closely associated with PEC activation. PEC activation describes the phenotypic switch from their normal quiescent state to one in which they proliferate and migrate to the glomerular tuft, leading to glomerular injury.

Brenner and Rector's The Kidney, 2-Volume Set, 11th Edition

Chapter 85 "Stem Cells, Kidney Regeneration, Gene and Cell Therapy in Nephrology"

Cardiac Biomarkers and Risk of Incident Heart Failure in Chronic Kidney Disease

Bansal N, Zelnick L, Go A, Anderson A, Christenson R, Deo R, Defilippi C, Lash J, He J, Ky B, Seliger S, Soliman E, Shlipak M; CRIC Study Investigators 

Cardiac biomarkers may signal mechanistic pathways involved in heart failure (HF), a leading complication in chronic kidney disease. We tested the associations of NT‐proBNP (N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide), high‐sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), galectin‐3, growth differentiation factor‐15 (GDF‐15), and soluble ST2 (sST2) with incident HF in chronic kidney disease. We examined adults with chronic kidney disease enrolled in a prospective, multicenter study. All biomarkers were measured at baseline.

Serum Calcification Propensity and Clinical Events in CKD

Joshua D. BundyXuan CaiRupal C. MehtaJulia J. SciallaIan H. de BoerChi-yuan HsuAlan S. GoMirela A. DobreJing ChenPanduranga S. RaoMary B. LeonardJames P. LashGeoffrey A. BlockRaymond R. TownsendHarold I. FeldmanEdward R. SmithAndreas PaschTamara Isakova and the CRIC Study Investigators

Patients with CKD are at high risk for cardiovascular disease, ESKD, and mortality. Vascular calcification is one pathway through which cardiovascular disease risks are increased. We hypothesized that a novel measure of serum calcification propensity is associated with cardiovascular disease events, ESKD, and all-cause mortality among patients with CKD stages 2–4.