Our research broadens the knowledge of kidney disease.

Read up-to-date Nephrology faculty research on Pubmed with the link below

University of Washington Nephrology Faculty Research on Pubmed

We are committed to conducting path-breaking research in order to improve the lives of people with kidney diseases. Our faculty consistently publish new research in nationally recognized journals.

A selection of recent papers:


Perspectives of Triage Team Members Participating in Statewide Triage Simulations for Scarce Resource Allocation During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Washington State

Butler CR, Webster LB, Diekema DS, Gray MM, Sakata VL, Tonelli MR, Vranas KC

Question: What are the experiences of individuals participating in scarce resource triage teams during the COVID-19 pandemic, and how can clinicians prepare for this role? Findings: In this qualitative study of 41 triage team members participating in multi-institutional triage simulations in Washington state, participants described how they grappled with clinical uncertainty and ethical challenges and how the triage task could conflict with professional values and required transformation of the usual clinical mindset.

Strategies for optimizing urea removal to enable portable kidney dialysis: A reappraisal

Shao G, Himmelfarb J, Hinds BJ

We have performed a literature search using Web of Science and PubMed databases to find available articles reporting (or be able to calculate from blood plasma concentration) > 5 mg of individually quantified solutes removed during thrice-weekly hemodialysis sessions. If multiple reports of the same solute were available, the reported values were averaged, and the geometric mean of standard deviations was taken. Further critical literature analysis of reported dialysate regeneration methods was performed using Web of Science and PubMed databases.

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Use in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review

Portuguese AJ, Tykodi SS, Blosser CD, Gooley TA, Thompson JA, Hall ET

Chronic immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) leads to an increased risk of a wide variety of cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is indicated for many of these; however, the risks and benefits of ICI use in the SOTR population have not been well characterized. We performed a systematic literature review identifying 119 reported cases of ICI use among SOTRs. Treatments used included PD-1 inhibition (75.6%), CTLA-4 inhibition (12.6%), PD-L1 inhibition (1.7%), and combination and/or sequential ICI therapy (10.1%).

Video Images about Decisions for Ethical Outcomes in Kidney Disease (VIDEO-KD): the study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

Eneanya ND, Lakin JR, Paasche-Orlow MK, Lindvall C, Moseley ET, Henault L, Hanchate AD, Mandel EI, Wong SPY, Zupanc SN, Davis AD, El-Jawahri A, Quintiliani LM, Chang Y, Waikar SS, Bansal AD, Schell JO, Lundquist AL, Tamura MK, Yu MK, Unruh ML, Argyropoulos C, Germain MJ, Volandes A

The Video Images about Decisions for Ethical Outcomes in Kidney Disease trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of an intervention that includes a CKD-related video decision aid followed by recording personal video declarations about goals of care and treatment preferences in older adults with advancing CKD. We aim to enrol 600 patients over 5 years at 10 sites.

Multivalent designed proteins neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and confer protection against infection in mice

Hunt AC, Case JB, Park YJ, Cao L, Wu K, Walls AC, Liu Z, Bowen JE, Yeh HW, Saini S, Helms L, Zhao YT, Hsiang TY, Starr TN, Goreshnik I, Kozodoy L, Carter L, Ravichandran R, Green LB, Matochko WL, Thomson CA, Vögeli B, Krüger A, VanBlargan LA, Chen RE, Ying B, Bailey AL, Kafai NM, Boyken SE, Ljubetič A, Edman N, Ueda G, Chow CM, Johnson M, Addetia A, Navarro MJ, Panpradist N, Gale M Jr, Freedman BS, Bloom JD, Ruohola-Baker H, Whelan SPJ, Stewart L, Diamond MS, Veesler D, Jewett MC, Baker D.

New variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to arise and prolong the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here we used a cell-free expression workflow to rapidly screen and optimize constructs containing multiple computationally designed mini protein inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. We found the broadest efficacy with a homo-trimeric version of the 75-residue angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mimic AHB2 (TRI2-2) designed to geometrically match the trimeric spike architecture.

Comparison of mortality between Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare beneficiaries with kidney failure

Kim D, Lee Y, Swaminathan S, Mehrotra R, Rivera-Hernandez M, Thorsness R, Nguyen KH, Trivedi AN

Objectives: To compare risk-adjusted 1-year mortality between Medicare Advantage (MA) and traditional Medicare (TM) enrollees with kidney failure who initiated dialysis.Study Design: Longitudinal analysis of mortality and enrollment data for Medicare beneficiaries. Methods: The study compared mortality between MA and TM enrollees with kidney failure who initiated dialysis in 2016, accounting for their enrollment switches between MA and TM during 12 months prior to dialysis initiation. Analyses were adjusted for risk scores and fixed effects for the month of dialysis initiation and county of residence.

The Microbiome and p-Inulin in Hemodialysis: A Feasibility Study

Raj DS, Sohn MB, Charytan DM, Himmelfarb J, Ikizler TA, Mehrotra R, Ramezani A, Regunathan-Shenk R, Hsu JY, Landis JR, Li H, Kimmel PL, Kliger AS, Dember LM; Hemodialysis Novel Therapies Consortium.

Background: The intestinal microbiome is an appealing target for interventions in ESKD because of its likely contribution to uremic toxicity. Before conducting clinical trials of microbiome-altering treatments, it is necessary to understand the within-person and between-person variability in the composition and function of the gut microbiome in patients with ESKD. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, nonrandomized, crossover feasibility study of patients on maintenance hemodialysis consisting of three phases: pretreatment (8 weeks); treatment, during which the prebiotic, p-inulin, was administered at a dosage of 8 g twice daily (12 weeks); and post-treatment (8 weeks). Stool samples were collected 1–2 times per week and blood was collected weekly for 28 weeks. The gut microbiome was characterized using 16S ribosomal-RNA sequencing and metabolomic profiling.

A Critical Role for Shared Decision-Making about Referral and Evaluation for Kidney Transplant

Progression of advanced kidney disease prompts a range of complex care decisions. Primary nephrologists are optimally positioned to support patients with kidney failure in making individualized decisions about how and whether to pursue treatment options, including transplant, dialysis, and conservative care. Kidney transplant is a valuable treatment option for many of these patients, but the availability of deceased donor kidneys is far outstripped by demand, and not all patients have a willing and eligible living donor. These features necessitate a unique process of patient evaluation and selection and ultimately limit the number of patients who will receive a kidney.

Blood Pressure Checks for Diagnosing Hypertension: Health Professionals' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices

Green BB, Anderson ML, Ehrlich K, Hall YN, Hansell LD, Hsu C, Joseph D, Margolis KL, McClure JB, Munson SA, Thompson MJ

Introduction: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurement before making a new hypertension diagnosis and initiating treatment, using 24-hour ambulatory (ABPM) or home BP monitoring. However, this approach is not common. Methods: e-mail-linked surveys were sent to primary care team members (n = 421) from 10 clinics. The sample included medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, advanced practice registered nurses (LPN/RN/APRNs), physician assistants (PAs), and physicians. Those licensed to diagnose hypertension (physician/PA/APRNs) received additional questions. Data were collected from November 2017 to July 2019.

Urinary Proteomics Identifies Cathepsin D as a Biomarker of Rapid eGFR Decline in Type 1 Diabetes

Limonte CP, Valo E, Drel V, Natarajan L, Darshi M, Forsblom C, Henderson CM, Hoofnagle AN, Ju W, Kretzler M, Montemayor D, Nair V, Nelson RG, O'Toole JF, Toto RD, Rosas SE, Ruzinski J, Sandholm N, Schmidt IM, Vaisar T, Waikar SS, Zhang J, Rossing P, Ahluwalia TS, Groop PH, Pennathur S, Snell-Bergeon JK, Costacou T, Orchard TJ, Sharma K, de Boer IH

OBJECTIVE: Understanding mechanisms underlying rapid estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline is important to predict and treat kidney disease in type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a case-control study nested within four T1D cohorts to identify urinary proteins associated with rapid eGFR decline. Case and control subjects were categorized based on eGFR decline ≥3 and <1 mL/min/1.73 m2/year, respectively. We used targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure 38 peptides from 20 proteins implicated in diabetic kidney disease. Significant proteins were investigated in complementary human cohorts and in mouse proximal tubular epithelial cell cultures.