Our faculty research broadens the knowledge of kidney disease.

Person-Centered Care for Older Adults With Kidney Disease: Core Curriculum 2019

This Core Curriculum article models a person-centered approach to care for older adults with kidney disease. We provide background information on the principles of person-centered care and outline ways in which this approach contrasts with the more disease-based approaches that dominate current medical education and practice. Using hypothetical cases, we discuss 3 clinical scenarios that arise commonly when caring for older adults with kidney disease.

Hypoglycemia in People with Type 2 Diabetes and CKD

Ahmad I, Zelnick LR, Batacchi Z, Robinson N, Dighe A, Manski-Nankervis JE, Furler J, O'Neal DN, Little R, Trence D, Hirsch IB, Bansal N, de Boer IH.

Among people with diabetes mellitus, CKD may promote hypoglycemia through altered clearance of glucose-lowering medications, decreased kidney gluconeogenesis, and blunted counter-regulatory response. We conducted a prospective observational study of hypoglycemia among 105 individuals with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin or a sulfonylurea using continuous glucose monitors.

Dialysis initiation, modality choice, access, and prescription: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference

Chan CT, Blankestijn PJ, Dember LM, Gallieni M, Harris DCH, Lok CE, Mehrotra R, Stevens PE, Wang AY, Cheung M, Wheeler DC, Winkelmayer WC, Pollock CA; Conference Participants.

Globally, the number of patients undergoing maintenance dialysis is increasing, yet throughout the world there is significant variability in the practice of initiating dialysis. Factors such as availability of resources, reasons for starting dialysis, timing of dialysis initiation, patient education and preparedness, dialysis modality and access, as well as varied "country-specific" factors significantly affect patient experiences and outcomes. As the burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has increased globally, there has also been a growing recognition of the importance of patient involvement in determining the goals of care and decisions regarding treatment.

Multicolor Flow Cytometry and Cytokine Analysis Provides Enhanced Information on Kidney Transplant Biopsies

Muczynski KA, Leca N, Anderson AE, Kieran N, Anderson SK

Current processing of renal biopsy samples provides limited information about immune mechanisms causing kidney injury and disease activity. We used flow cytometry with transplanted kidney biopsy samples to provide more information on the immune status of the kidney. To enhance the information available from a biopsy, we developed a technique for reducing a fraction of a renal biopsy sample to single cells for multicolor flow cytometry and quantitation of secreted cytokines present within the biopsy sample.

Complex Decision Making about Dialysis in Critically Ill Older Adults with AKI

Butler CR, O'Hare AM

AKI is extremely common in patients who are sick enough to be admitted to the ICU, and kidney dialysis is one of many treatments that might be initiated during an ICU stay. Although outcomes among critically ill older adults with AKI are known to be poor, there can be substantial heterogeneity in the risk of adverse outcomes among members of this group. There can also be marked differences in the preferences, goals, and values of individual patients when faced with potentially life-altering treatment choices. In this context, engaging patients and their families in a shared decision-making process is essential to supporting a patient-centered approach to care. However, available evidence suggests that, despite growing support for shared decision making, medical necessity and clinicians’ sense of patients’ best interest often drive decision making when the stakes are high

Albumin in Cirrhosis: More Than a Colloid

Paine CH, Biggins SW, Pichler RH

Albumin has repeatedly been shown to be beneficial in treating patients with decompensated cirrhosis. We reviewed the medical literature regarding indications for the use of intravenous albumin in cirrhosis, with particular focus on the ways in which albumin can help mitigate hepatorenal physiology.

Prediction of cardiovascular outcomes with machine learning techniques: application to the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) study

Chen T, Brewster P, Tuttle KR, Dworkin LD, Henrich W, Greco BA, Steffes M, Tobe S, Jamerson K, Pencina K, Massaro JM, D'Agostino RB Sr, Cutlip DE, Murphy TP, Cooper CJ, Shapiro JI.

Data derived from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) study were analyzed in an effort to employ machine learning methods to predict the composite endpoint described in the original study.

Association of Acute Kidney Injury with Cardiovascular Events and Death in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial

Dieter BP, Daratha KB, McPherson SM, Short R, Alicic RZ, Tuttle KR

Abstract - RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: In the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial, the possible relationships between acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk of major cardiovascular events and death are not known. STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Hypertensive adults without diabetes who were ≥50 years of age with prior cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), 10-year Framingham risk score > 15%, or age > 75 years were assigned to a systolic blood pressure target of < 120 mm Hg (intensive) or < 140 mm Hg (standard). PREDICTOR: AKI episodes.

A Prediction Model for Severe AKI in Critically Ill Adults That Incorporates Clinical and Biomarker Data.

Bhatraju PK, Zelnick LR, Katz R, Mikacenic C, Kosamo S, Hahn WO, Dmyterko V, Kestenbaum B, Christiani DC, Liles WC, Himmelfarb J, Wurfel MM.

Critically ill patients with worsening AKI are at high risk for poor outcomes. Predicting which patients will experience progression of AKI remains elusive. We sought to develop and validate a risk model for predicting severe AKI within 72 hours after intensive care unit admission.

Blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and risk of erectile dysfunction in men with type I diabetes

Sarma AV, Hotaling JM, de Boer IH, Dunn RL, Oerline MK, Singh K, Goldberg J, Jacobson A, Braffett B, Herman WH, Pop-Busui R, Wessells H; DCCT/EDIC Research Group.

To gain insight into the effect of blood pressure on the pathophysiology of diabetic erectile dysfunction, we determined the onset, severity and treatment of hypertension and risk of incident erectile dysfunction in men with type I diabetes. This prospective cohort study included 692 men without prevalent erectile dysfunction in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. Erectile dysfunction was assessed yearly for 16 years with a single question querying presence of impotence. Multivariable cox proportional hazards models examined associations of hypertension variables with risk for incident erectile dysfunction.