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Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

While on your nephrology rotation, you will see many consults for acute kidney injury (AKI). In many cases, the reason for AKI is quite clear, although you will also see plenty of AKI cases with more occult causes that require in-depth investigation.



While on your nephrology rotation, you will see many consults for in-patient dialysis. You will also see the term RRT for “renal replacement therapy."


Diuretics & Cardiorenal Syndrome

Cardiorenal syndrome describes a spectrum of conditions in which dysfunction of the heart or kidneys causes the other organ to also fail, leading to a cascading state of multiorgan failure and volume overload.


Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS)

Nephrologists are often asked to help manage patients with cirrhosis and acute kidney injury (AKI). This usually involves differentiating hepato-renal syndrome (HRS) from other causes of AKI.


Home Dialysis

Home Dialysis for Fellows is a resource on all things related to home dialysis. You will find common (and not-so-common) case presentations on important topics in peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis. There are also links to important studies in the field and general resources. 



Hyperkalemia is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities on the nephrology consult service. Depending on the severity of hyperkalemia and kidney function, you may choose dialysis or alternate medical management for treatment.



Hypernatremia is a common lab disorder that you will encounter in the hospital, especially in patients without free access to water, such as those who are intubated or restrained.



Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte derangement that you will see on the nephrology consult service. It can be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in severe cases.


Metabolic Acidosis

Acid-base disorders are common in ill, hospitalized patients. On the nephrology rotation, you will most commonly be consulted for patients with metabolic acidosis, although you will also see metabolic alkalosis and mixed disorders.